If you only need to share big files with someone occasionally, there are safe web-based solutions such as Hightail that enable you to simply upload a file and enter the recipient’s email address. Your recipient will then receive an email with a link that contains a randomly generated string (a password, in effect). Some public available tools, like DropBox, OneDrive or WeTransfer offer the same service but are, however, less secure. If requested by a law enforcement agency these firms might be forced to disclose your files.
If you exchange files with certain people regularly it may be better to set up a shared space, such as Microsoft SharePoint, to which access is granted by means of a username and password.
To err on the side of caution, you can set up the secure file sharing tools in an on-premise configuration or in a private cloud supplied by a provider falling under a jurisdiction of your choice. This way, you are optimally protected against breaches of confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation.
Not all types of data need encryption. When sharing internal data, such as methodologies or research data, you can save yourself the extra work because the disclosure of the data would only have a limited business impact. This is different, however, for (strictly) confidential data. Being in control by encrypting the data brings, in the end, more efficiency.
Or to put it differently: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! So, check out some tools such as 7-Zip, WinRar, Hightail and SharePoint and learn to master them before cybercriminals master your data!